Tai got really dark with this shed now that she has her winter coat in... this is her first shed being completely on raw, she went from being a really light cinnamon to a milk chocolate type color with a cream undercoat...really quite stunning but was amazed at how dark she got!
That is the way with my Sprite. I also found this with Houdini and Boris (he had been kibble fed and then switched by the lady who bought him, he had not had a major shed before coming to my home). I can't help but wonder if some of the cinnamon, butterscotch or champagnes aren't just young ferrets who's coats are compromised by the food that they eat. I'm not saying that this is always the way but if this colour is indeed rarer than actually seen ciao
Technically ferrets don't get or have "Waardensberg Syndrome" - that is a syndrome of humans only. the problem for ferrets and other placental mammals is called Neural Crest Disorder - you can find more info for this, a fair amount of technical papers and such.
Basically Neural Crest Disorder means that for whatever reason there is a disruption in a batch of neural cells that do not trigger proper development of specific areas of the mammal's body. Most typically this is in the head region and deafness or hearing issues are common, as are spinal deformities, mis-shaped skulls and other problems, internally with nervous systems, digestive systems and skeletal make up.
While there are generalities across a wide range of animals, each animal will be affected uniquely depending upon which group of cells did NOT mature correctly in utero.
THere may be a connection too with what is known as the "Star" Gene. Where animals have been bred with "high white markings". THis "star gene" became evident from research by RUssian (?) furriers attempting to breed tamer foxes for the fur trade. They discovered that foxes with white markings seemed to be more docile. AS they continued to breed these the foxes not only develeoped more white markings, but also became more dog- like! Its fascinating. Horses too suffer from issues with "High white markings" from poor eyesight and hearing, to skin sensitivities to ligament disruption.
Humans tend to be drawn to animals with more white on the faces and extremities. Animals with white face markings and "boots, socks or mitts" appear less "wild" to us. SOme white markings do occur naturally - but it seems to be when there is a predominance of white or patterned white markings that these neural crest disorders become prevalent.
It makes for interesting reading, and then a re-evaluation of exactly what attracts us to an animal companion and our responsibilities when breeding for companions.
My First ferret Josie, was a panda and she had MANY neural crest disorder external markers. She had an all white head and neck with white bib. Dark belly spots, four white mitts and a white tip on her tail., Her head was more narrow than normal, but her eyes were a tad farther apart,she didn't seem to be able to open her jaws as wide as other ferrets ( although that did NOT prevent her from being one awesome natural predator) She also had the one internal marker- invisible to the naked eye - a reduced vigor of her immune system with a genetic marker for Juvenile Lymphosarcoma. The dread disease did her in at a mere14 months old! Devastated me. But Josie's short time here was life changing for me.
Josie was deaf, but extremely intelligent, she learned hand signals, was very attentive, we spent 24/7 with my mobile service business, and spent countless hours on excursions to the beach, various parks, woods, neighborhoods and plazas. She revelled in motorcycle and truck rides and never met an unfriendly person. She was a great ferret ambassador that left much too soon; but not before teaching me many things and starting me on a quest for more ferret knowledge!
Neural Crest Disorder is NOT a pretty thing and responsible breeders should breed to eliminate it, or at least bury it deep in the gene pool. Responsible owners will discover as much as they can about it and help their ferrets (or other animals) that suffer from their individual troubles.
It has been used interchangeably with Neural Crest. You will note that this is the definition. It originally was only related to humans but it has been decided that other "mammals" can also fall under the Waardenburg syndrome type if they meet certain criteria genetically. See copied below
Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder most often characterized by varying degrees of deafness, minor defects in structures arising from the neural crest, and pigmentation anomalies.
Eponyms and classification
It is named after Dutch ophthalmologist Petrus Johannes Waardenburg (1886-1979), who first defined it in 1951. [cite journal |author=Waardenburg PJ |title=A new syndrome combining developmental anomalies of the eyelids, eyebrows and nose root with pigmentary defects of the iris and head hair and with congenital deafness |journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet. |volume=3 |issue=3 |pages=195–253 |year=1951 |month=September |pmid=14902764 |pmc=1716407 |doi= |url=] [WhoNamedIt|doctor|1012] The condition he described is now categorized as WS1.
WS2 was identified in 1971, to describe cases where "dystopia canthorum" did not present. [cite journal |author=Arias S |title=Genetic heterogeneity in the Waardenburg syndrome |journal=Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. |volume=07 |issue=4 |pages=87–101 |year=1971 |pmid=5006208] WS2 is now split into subtypes, based upon the gene responsible.
Other types have been identified, but they are less common.
Subtypes of the syndrome are traceable to different genetic variations:
There are several other names used. These include Klein-Waardenburg syndrome, Mende's syndrome II, Van der Hoeve-Halbertsma-Waardenburg syndrome, Ptosis-Epicanthus syndrome, Van der Hoeve-Halbertsma-Gualdi syndrome, Waardenburg type Pierpont [ [http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?Lng=GB&Expert=3441 ORPHANET - About rare diseases - About orphan drugs ] ] , Van der Hoeve-Waardenburg-Klein syndrome, Waardenburg's syndrome II, and Vogt’s syndrome.
Types I and II are the most common types of the syndrome, whereas types III and IV are rare. Overall, the syndrome affects perhaps 1 in 42,000 people. About 1 in 30 students in schools for the deaf have Waardenburg syndrome. All races and both sexes are affected equally. The highly variable presentation of the syndrome makes it difficult to arrive at precise figures for its prevalence.
Symptoms vary from one type of the syndrome to another and from one patient to another, but they include: *Very pale or brilliantly blue eyes, eyes of two different colors (complete heterochromia), or eyes with one iris having two different colours (sectoral heterochromia); *A forelock of white hair (poliosis), or premature graying of the hair; *Wide-set eyes (hypertelorism) due to a prominent, broad nasal root (dystopia canthorum—particularly associated with type I); *Moderate to profound hearing impairment (higher frequency associated with type II); and *A low hairline and eyebrows that touch in the middle. * Patches of white pigmentation on the skin have been observed in some people. Sometimes, abnormalities of the arms, associated with type III, have been observed. * Type IV may include neurologic manifestations.Waardenburg syndrome has also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders, such as intestinal and spinal defects, elevation of the scapula, and cleft lip and palate.
This condition is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person has one parent with the condition. A small percentage of cases result from new mutations in the gene; these cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.
Some cases of type II and type IV Waardenburg syndrome appear to have an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, which means two copies of the gene must be altered for a person to be affected by the disorder. Most often, the parents of a child with an autosomal recessive disorder are not affected but are carriers of one copy of the altered gene.
There is currently no treatment or cure for Waardenburg syndrome. The symptom most likely to be of practical importance is deafness, and this is treated as any other irreversible deafness would be. In marked cases there may be cosmetic issues. Other abnormalities (neurological, structural) associated with the syndrome are treated symptomatically.
Waardenburg syndrome is known to occur in ferrets. The affected animal will usually have a small white stripe along the top of its head and a somewhat, although barely noticeably, flatter skull than normal ferrets. As a ferret's sense of hearing is poor to begin with it is not easily noticeable except for when the affected animal does not react to loud noises that non-affected ones will respond to. As the disorder is easily spread to offspring, the affected animal will not be used for breeding, although it may still be neutered and sold as a pet.
Wonder what book the definition came from describing ferrets and their "poor sense of hearing"? Mine don't seem to have any problem hearing a mouse squeak in the bathroom at the end of the hall when the T.V is blaring!
Now do they have SELECTIVE hearing? Certainly! But POOR hearing? only the deaf ones.
And There are many ferrets displaying Neural Crest Disorder/ Waardenberg syndrome that have more than just a thin white stripe on their head. AS for flattened skulls being a marker - I think that there are many versions of mis-shapen skulls - not just flattened.
The definition quoted seems outdated and very narrow.
I'm inclined to agree with the limited aspects of the paper and that statement of poor hearing vs selective. I find that ferrets that aren't deaf hear very well...at least when they want to I was actually looking for a statement made by Dr Murray (I believe it was him anyway) in regards to this. Unfortunately, this one though very limited and unfortunately dated did correlate the point that Waardenburg syndrome is also been diagnosed in ferrets as well as other mammals besides human mammals ciao
Post by ceciliaolucifer on Jan 5, 2011 16:05:14 GMT -5
Hi! My first time on this forum! Im studying to become an audionome and im situated in Sweden. I have five ferret boys which one of them are deaf. He is a silverpanda with a representative blaze on his head.
I have a ferret named Baby Dru who probably has WS type III. It is impossible to know what type he has without making an autopsy.
There are 4 sub- types of WS and basically these different types occurs depending on what gene causes the syndrome.
Associated pathology defects on humans/animals with WS are Craniofacial dysmophism , with or without dystopia canthorum, pigmentation abnomalities, skeletal abnomalities, and more.
WS are autosomal dominant ancestral and it means that if one parent has it the offspring will likely inherit it. It occurs in every generation and it strikes both genders.
Also, you dont have to be deaf to have WS. And there are over 400 syndromes defined to hearingloss and WS is just one of many.
Baby Dru are a happy, chubby ferretboy who goes along just fine with other ferrets. He is not into climbing at all, probably because his lack of balance. He is full of joy and has alot of energy to spend on bugging his friends! Despite being deaf, he is just like my other hearing ferrets.
How do you communicate with your deaf ferrets? Baby Dru and I use signlanguage, and it works just fine.
If you want to get in contact with me, the easiest way would be by email i think! email@example.com
Thank you so much for your explanation. It goes a long way to explaining the differences we're seeing between our fuzzes and why some seem to exhibit certain different characteristics while still maintaining a common thread or series of abnormalities. Your baby Dru is adorable. I have 5 deafies of which 3 of those show strong Waardenburg symptoms, I also have a hearing boy who has many strong symptom but isn't deaf...he's special I use sign language, and the room lights to get their attention (flicking the light on and off). I talk to my guys, more for my benefit than theirs, but almost all of them when they snuggle like to lay their head either on my throat or chest and I talk to them or sing to them...they can't hear how bad I sound . Do feel free to drop in when you have time ciao
My Calvin has shown some signs. he's deaf and doesn't make a single noise, he doesn't hiss he doesn't dook, nothing. He's a pretty squishy boy, not much muscle on him and he is a marshall ferret. But he has a TON of energy, and he isn't stupid. He's never ever bitten me, or anyone actually. He's the best behaved one I have haha